It was remarkable that his auto was even in a fit state to continue, but the damage meant he was effectively racing blind.
Stewards summoned Vettel, Raikkonen and Verstappen to a meeting after the race.
Red Bull Racing's pace from practice did not carry over to the race, and while Daniel Ricciardo looked set to be one of the favouries for the race win in Singapore, only managed to finish in second place, four seconds down on Hamilton despite a late Safety Car.
Lewis Hamilton has claimed a surprise win at an incident-packed Singapore Grand Prix with Australia's Daniel Ricciardo finishing second for Red Bull and Hamilton's Mercedes teammate Valtteri Bottas third.
He said: 'I think I have damage on the front left.' The race engineer replied: 'Big damage on the sidepod, stop the vehicle.
Lewis is leading the race and the three of us are out.
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With three safety vehicle interruptions, the race ended with 58 of the 61 laps completed after hitting the two-hour mark.
Red Bull team boss Christian Horner defended Verstappen, who had started on the front row with Raikkonen behind in fourth place. "Obviously we are not in the race, that's a pity, we can't show the pace that we have but I am sure there will be more opportunities".
"Guys what can I say - what a turn-around today!"
He said: "I didn't see that much".
"If you are fighting for the title you shouldn't take those risks". "It was not very clever". I saw Max and then the next thing I see is Max and Kimi hitting me somewhere.
Vettel and Verstappen were involved in heated incidents last season, and the ill feeling still seems to linger.
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Daniil Kvyat put his Toro Rosso into the Turn 7 wall amid tricky conditions on Lap 11, and Marcus Ericsson crashed his Sauber on the Anderson Bridge on Lap 38.
By the next re-start on lap 15, Ricciardo had changed tires, but Hamilton hadn't.
"Why another safety auto?"
Mercedes declined to pit Hamilton under the safety vehicle but after the restart, he reeled off a string of fastest laps on the slowly drying track, extending his lead over Ricciardo.
But Hamilton shot off after the restart to maintain the gap from Ricciardo and as he finally took the chequered flag, the grandstand came to its feet and fireworks lit up the night sky.
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It made no difference here, as Hamilton won by 4.5 seconds.